Biochemist and expert in science policy
PhD in Pharmacy by the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). Professor of Biochemistry at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Granada (UGR), of which he was rector between 1968 and 1972. In addition, he was also Professor of Biochemistry at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM).
Co-founder of the Severo Ochoa Molecular Biology Center. Minister of Education and Science of the Spanish Government during 1981 and 1982. He was also a member of the European Parliament in 1987. Director General of UNESCO between 1987 and 1999. President of the European Research Council Expert Group and co-chair of the High Level Group for the Alliance of Civilizations. He was also President of the Initiative for Science in Europe and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the IPS News Agency. President of the International Commission against the Death Penalty. President of the Consell de Participación del Espacio Natural de Sierra Nevada. In 1999 he created the Fundación Cultura de la Pau, of which he is the president. Co-President of the University Institute of Human Rights, Democracy and Culture of Peace and Nonviolence (DEMOSPAZ).